A square is an open, public space typically located at the center of a city, town, or urban area. Squares play a crucial role in social life, serving as venues for cultural, political, economic, and social activities within the community. To ensure that a square fulfills its role effectively, it is essential to have landscape design standards for the square that meet the necessary criteria.
Why is it necessary to build a square?
In almost every large urban area, there is an architectural structure resembling a square because it not only represents a characteristic place but also carries significant spiritual meaning.
Elements such as fountains, long benches, greenery, statues, water music, when harmoniously combined, attract many people for leisure and enjoyment. Entertainment complexes like theaters, coffee shops, exhibition areas, landscape park designs, playgrounds, etc., help stimulate community activities. This contributes to the urban value of the square.
Urban planning and landscape design will arrange the architecture around the square to reflect its main purpose in terms of historical, cultural, or community values.
Preserving Historical Events
The square is a symbol of the entire city, a place that preserves historical values such as heroic achievements through struggles for independence. The square is also the starting point of many roads, each with a story about a historical period. Therefore, the square can be considered an architectural infrastructure similar to a vibrant book of the city.
Literally, a square involves constructing architecture and urban planning, but figuratively, it is also crucial for building a sense of patriotism and national unity.
In addition to its expansive space, objects placed in the square, such as statues of historical figures, flagpoles, etc., are factors that help nurture a sense of patriotism, gratitude, and pride for the generations to come regarding their ancestors.
A Place for Community Connection and Interaction
The square is also a gathering place for city residents and an attraction for tourists both domestic and international. It can give a distinctive character to the urban area, connecting people and facilitating the exchange of art, politics, and culture.
Square spaces are often designed to be open and airy, with well-arranged flower gardens and interconnected rows of trees.
Landscape Design Standards for the Square
Standards for the Function of the Square
The square can be categorized based on its main function, including:
- Political Square: A place for political activities and major national, city, or local festivals.
- Cultural Square: A venue for cultural, artistic, and community entertainment activities.
- Commercial Square: A space for commercial and business activities.
- Eco-friendly Square: A place for people to rest, relax, and immerse themselves in nature.
Each type of square has its own functions; therefore, landscape design needs to ensure that it meets these specific functions. For example, a political square requires a spacious area to organize protests and major festivals; a cultural square needs a stage and exhibition areas for artistic activities; a commercial square needs space for booths and stalls; an eco-friendly square needs greenery, benches, and walkways for people to relax and enjoy the green space.
Standards for Design Requirements of the Square
Landscape design for the square needs to meet the following requirements:
- Aesthetic: The square must have high aesthetic value, creating a beautiful and harmonious space that symbolizes the city or locality. The design should pay attention to elements such as lighting, color, shape, and materials to create a unique and attractive space for residents.
- Function: The square must fulfill necessary functions, ensuring effective service for activities taking place there. The design should consider the arrangement of different areas to suit each function, while ensuring openness and convenience for users.
- Safety: The square must ensure safety for users, avoiding potential hazards. The design should ensure the safety of pedestrians, vehicles, and activities taking place in the square. Additionally, fire prevention measures and firefighting equipment should be in place to ensure safety for everyone.
Other Standards for Landscape Design of the Square
During the landscape design process of the square, attention should be given to the following factors:
- Topography: The topography of the square area will affect the selection of landscape elements such as trees, walkways, or exhibition areas. If the topography is not suitable, measures need to be taken to create a beautiful and convenient space.
- Climate: Climate is also an important factor to consider in the landscape design of the square. In hot and humid climates, broad-leaved trees are needed to create shade; in cold climates, areas for planting trees are required to retain warmth and provide a green space.
- Surrounding Environment: The surrounding environment also influences the landscape design of the square. If the square is located in a densely populated area, measures need to be taken to reduce noise and air pollution; if it is near a river or the sea, measures are needed to prevent flooding and protect the water environment.
Landscape Design Styles for Squares
There are various types of landscape design styles for squares applied depending on the intended use and conditions of the area. Below are some common landscape design styles for squares:
Modern Landscape Design
Modern landscape design often brings a simple, minimalist space that remains aesthetically pleasing. Elements like light, color, and shape are used tastefully to create a unique and modern space.
Classic Landscape Design
Classic style typically offers an elegant, sophisticated space with elements such as fountains, stone walls, and green canopies. This design style is often applied to political or cultural squares.
Ecological Landscape Design
Ecological landscape design style often focuses on creating a green space that is close to nature. Elements such as green trees, walkways, and stone benches are used to create a relaxing space and soothe individuals.
Steps in Square Landscape Design
The process of designing a square landscape should follow the following steps:
- Collecting Information: The first step in the design process is to gather information about the square area, including the terrain, climate, surrounding environment, and client’s requirements.
- Planning: After collecting sufficient information, planning the design based on the area’s requirements and conditions is necessary.
- Designing Drawings: Drawings will be created to visualize the design ideas and provide clients with an overall view of the square space.
- Material Selection: Once the drawings are ready, choosing suitable materials to implement the design is crucial.
- Implementation and Construction: Finally, the design will be executed and constructed according to the previously established plan.
Material Selection in Square Landscape Design
Choosing materials in square landscape design is crucial to create a beautiful and sustainable space. Below are some types of materials commonly used in square landscape design:
- Stone: Stone is a common material in square landscape design and can be used to create walls, fountains, or seating areas.
- Brick: Brick is also widely used in square landscape design. It can be used for paving walkways or creating various shapes on the ground.
- Greenery: Greenery is an essential element in square landscape design. Greenery not only creates a cool and refreshing space but also helps reduce noise and air pollution.
- Lighting: Lighting is also a crucial element in square landscape design, creating a sparkling and safe space for people to navigate at night.
Considerations in Square Landscape Design
In the process of square landscape design, it’s important to consider the following points to ensure the success of the project:
- Respect Local Architecture and Culture: The design should be in harmony with the local architecture and culture to create a unified and visually pleasing space.
- Ensure Aesthetic Appeal: Square landscape design should create an aesthetically pleasing and harmonious space to attract residents and tourists.
- Use Sustainable Materials: Using sustainable materials will help save maintenance costs and ensure the sustainability of the landscape space.
- Ensure Safety: The design should ensure safety for users, avoiding potential hazardous situations.
Calculation Sheet for Area and Cost of Square Landscape Design
Calculating the area and cost of square landscape design is crucial to ensure the project is implemented efficiently. Factors to consider in the calculation include:
- Total area of the square.
- Area of green spaces, walkways, exhibition areas, etc.
- Cost of materials and construction.
Introduction to Some Notable Square Landscape Design Projects
- Ba Dinh Square – Hanoi: The largest square in Vietnam, where important political activities of the country take place. The square is designed in a modern style with green areas and a fountain.
- Dong Ba Square – Hue: Located in the historical site of Dai Noi, designed in a classical style with stone walls and a fountain.
- August Revolution Square – Ho Chi Minh City: Situated in the city center, designed in a modern style with green areas and pedestrian pathways.
- My Dinh Square – Hanoi: Located near My Dinh Stadium, designed in a modern style with green areas and pedestrian pathways.
Square design is a complex process that requires attention and finesse from the designer. Adhering to square landscape design standards to ensure aesthetics, safety, and sustainability for the landscape is crucial to create a living and working space that is conducive for everyone. We hope this article helps you understand more about square design standards and how to apply them effectively in practice.